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CASA Working Paper 197

CASA Working Paper 197

08 August 2014

Visual Analytics for Urban Design
Here we outline the rapid development of new tools for visualising cities and their functions with an emphasis on how they can be used in the analytical phases of urban design. We begin with the most obvious examples of digital visualisation – 2D and 3D maps ...

CASA Working Paper 196

CASA Working Paper 196

06 May 2014

Bicycle sharing systems - Global Trends in Size

Bicycle sharing systems allow users to hire a bicycle from an automated docking station for short journeys, typically one-way, providing a novel alternative to traditional methods of transport. The adoption of such systems by cities has been accelerating, with over 700 active systems ...

CASA Working Paper 195

CASA Working Paper 195


Scale, Power Laws and Rank Size in Spatial Analysis

This chapter introduces a class of spatial probability distributions which depart from the normal distribution which is the baseline for conventional statistics and the ...

CASA Working Paper 194

CASA Working Paper 194

Intelligent Master Planning Tools

This paper reports on research into the development of digital tools for use in urban master planning. The concern has been to address the current issues of managing the ...

CASA Working Paper 193

CASA Working Paper 193

Von Thunen's Legendre Transform

The standard von Thunen construction for a monocentric city is shown to be a 
Legendre transform of the kind which underlies the statistical mechanical 
relationships of the standard ...

CASA Working Paper 192

CASA Working Paper 192


Inter-Regional Migration in Europe and the Influences of Economic and Labour Market Inequalities

Within the European Union (EU) disparities between countries and regions has led the European commission, since 1988, to make central ...

CASA Working Paper 191

CASA Working Paper 191

Developing classical and contemporary models in ESRI's City Engine

In this paper we describe the development of projects which aim to explore the use of procedural modelling as a complete toolkit for ...

CASA Working Paper 190

CASA Working Paper 190


Visualising Spatial and Social Media

In this chapter, we begin by surveying the development of computer graphics as it has influenced the development of the spatial representation of social and economic data, charting ...

CASA Working Paper 189

CASA Working Paper 189

The growth of London's street network in its dual representation

We study the growth of London’s street-network in its dual representation, as the city has evolved over the last 224 years ...

CASA Working Paper 188

CASA Working Paper 188

Smart Cities of the Future

In this paper we sketch the rudiments of what constitutes a smart city which we define as a city in which ICT is merged with traditional infrastructures, coordinated ...

CASA Working Paper 187

CASA Working Paper 187


Urban and Regional Modelling: The Science and Contributions to Planning


What are we modelling and why?
Models are representations of theories of systems of interest. Urban and regional models are representations of our ...

CASA Working Paper 186

CASA Working Paper 186


A global model of human migration

The United Nations (UN) defines human migration as the movement of people from one place in the world to another for the purpose of taking up permanent ...

CASA Working Paper 185

CASA Working Paper 185

Entropy, complexity and Spatial Information


We pose the central problem of defining a measure of complexity, specifically for spatial systems in general, city systems in particular. The measures we adopt are based on ...

CASA Working Paper 184

CASA Working Paper 184

Global migration modelling: A review of key policy needs and research centres

When addressing real world problems in international migration research, invariably the topic of migration-related policy comes to the fore. Policies may ...

CASA Working Paper 183

CASA Working Paper 183

Estimating intra-metropolitan journey-to-work CO2 emissions: a multi-modal
network approach applied to the London Region 2001


This paper develops a methodology for estimating network distances and CO2 emissions for UK census ward-level journey-to-work interactions ...

CASA Working Paper 182

CASA Working Paper 182

Modelling maritine piracy: a spatial approach

This paper presents an initial demonstration of a model to generate dynamic patterns of maritime piracy. Model details, outputs and a method for assessing the goodness of ...

CASA Working Paper 181

CASA Working Paper 181

Estimating flows between geographical locations: ‘get me started in’ spatial interaction Modelling


In geography and demography, understanding the flows of people, goods or capital between origins and destinations is an enduring challenge. Spatial ...

CASA Working Paper 180

CASA Working Paper 180


A mathematical challenge: the centre size distribution in a dynamic retail model

The standard retail model can be constructed as follows (cf. Wilson, 1970). Let {Sij} be a matrix of money flows from ...

CASA Working Paper 179

CASA Working Paper 179

Planning the evolution of the transport network for a region of Naples


The continuing growth of urban regions coupled with their strong interactions with transportation systems places great emphasis on the co-evolution of ...

CASA Working Paper 178

CASA Working Paper 178

A dynamic global trade model with four sectors: food, natural resources, manufactured goods and labour.

An important and long-standing research task is the building of a model of international trade flows, anchored in ...

CASA Working Paper 177

CASA Working Paper 177

Simulating the Spatial Distribution of Employment in Large Cities: with Applications to Greater London.

In this chapter, we first review the development of employment location models as they have been developed for integrated ...

CASA Working Paper 176

CASA Working Paper 176

Calibrating Cellular Automata Models for Simulating Urban Growth: Comparative Analysis of SLEUTH and Metronamica

For almost two decades, cellular automata (CA) has proven to be a popular and sometimes effective modeling approach to ...

CASA Working Paper 175

CASA Working Paper 175


A multi-level spatial interaction modelling framework for estimating interregional migration in Europe

This paper presents a new spatial interaction modelling framework for  estimating sub-national, international migration flows. A new family of models is ...

CASA Working Paper 174

CASA Working Paper 174

CensusProfiler - Creating accessible Geovisualizations of the Census of Population

This paper describes the outcome of the Census Geographic Visualization (Censusgiv) research project; a web prototype that offers significant geographic visualizations of the most ...

CASA Working Paper 173

CASA Working Paper 173

Cooperation in container shipping: A small world network of agreements.

The recent economic downturn has increased the need for cooperation among carriers in the container shipping industry. We introduce in this work a ...

CASA Working Paper 172

CASA Working Paper 172

Shipping as a complex adaptive system: A new approach in understanding international trade

If we consider worldwide maritime shipping as a system, we observe that a large number of independent rational agents play ...

CASA Working Paper 171

CASA Working Paper 171

Introducing space to mathematical models of conflict

Dynamic ecological models of interacting populations have been used extensively to investigate conflict between adversaries. Common examples include the Lotka-Volterra equations for predator-prey relationships,  Lanchester equations ...

CASA Working Paper 170

CASA Working Paper 170

Building a Science of Cities

Our understanding of cities is being transformed by new approaches from the complexity sciences (Batty, 2005). Here we review progress, sketching the background beginning with the systems approach ...

CASA Working Paper 169

CASA Working Paper 169

The Evolution of Hierarchical Transport Networks: A Demonstration Model

In order to take further the task of modelling the evolution of transport networks, the notion of an explicitly hierarchical dynamic model is introduced ...

CASA Working Paper 168

CASA Working Paper 168

The Humanities and Social Sciences in a Technological Age

The first task is to assert the core values of the humanities and the social sciences and then to explore the challenges and opportunities ...

CASA Working Paper 167

CASA Working Paper 167

A Note on the Bass Model Applied to Retail Dynamics

There are two variants of the retail model which are usual considered as distinct alternatives. A model developed by Bass which is widely ...

CASA Working Paper 166

CASA Working Paper 166

A Generic Framework for Computational Spatial Modelling

In this paper, we develop a generic framework for comparing spatial models whose dynamics ranges from comparative static equilibrium structures to fully dynamic models. In the ...

CASA Working Paper 165

CASA Working Paper 165

Modeling Urban Growth: An Agent Based Microeconomic Approach to Urban Dynamics and Spatial Policy Simulation

Spatially explicit and dynamic urban growth models provide valuable simulations that encapsulate essential knowledge in planning and policy ...

CASA Working Paper 164

CASA Working Paper 164

Visually-Driven Urban Simulation: Exploring Fast and Slow Change in Residential Location

We are developing a large scale residential location model of the Greater London region in which all stages of the model-building process ...

CASA Working Paper 163

CASA Working Paper 163

Visually-Intelligible Land Use Transportation Models for the Rapid Assessment of Urban Futures

We are building a series of fast, visually accessible cross-sectional, hence static urban models for large metropolitan areas that will enable ...

CASA Working Paper 162

CASA Working Paper 162

Geddes' Grand Theory: Life, Evolution, Social Union and the 'Great Transition'

We argue here that Patrick Geddes had a consistent and integrated 'grand theory' which underpinned his ideas on biology, sociology and town ...

CASA Working Paper 161

CASA Working Paper 161

Building 3D Agent-Based Models for Urban Systems

There is a growing interest in relating agent-based models to real- world locations by combining them with geographical information systems (GIS) which can be seen with ...

CASA Working Paper 160

CASA Working Paper 160


Using Geo-spatial Agent-Based Models for Studying Cities

The agent-based modelling (ABM) paradigm provides a mechanism for understanding the effects of interactions of individuals and through such interactions emergent structures develop, both in the ...

CASA Working Paper 159

CASA Working Paper 159


A general Richardson-Lotka- Volterra-reaction diffusion model

A general model is proposed that embraces the separate models - developed in the different traditions of politics and ecology - of Richardson and Lotka and Volterra. This formulation ...

CASA Working Paper 158

CASA Working Paper 158

Exploring the possibility-cone of urban development

It is well known that urban systems are complex and nonlinear and exhibit properties of multiple equilibria and path dependence. This makes model-based forecasting in a conventional ...

CASA Working Paper 157

CASA Working Paper 157

Exploring the Historical Determinants of Urban Growth through Cellular Automata
The model presented here is an attempt to bridge a widening gap between theoretical and empirical models of urban growth. It explores a ...

CASA Working Paper 156

CASA Working Paper 156


Thermodynamic Potentials and Phase Change for Transport Systems

'Thermodynamics of the City' (Wilson 2008) poses the question, in relation to the doubly constrained trip distribution model - What is Z?- where Z is the ...

CASA Working Paper 155

CASA Working Paper 155


From Buildings to Cities: Techniques for the Multi-Scale Analysis of Urban Form and Function

The built environment is a significant factor in many urban processes, yet direct measures of built form are seldom ...

CASA Working Paper 154

CASA Working Paper 154


Space, Scale, and Scaling in Entropy-Maximising

Entropy measures were first introduced into geographical analysis during a period when the concept of human systems as being in some sort of equilibrium was in the ...

CASA Working Paper 153

CASA Working Paper 153


Developing Efficient Web-based GIS Applications

There is an increase in the number of web-based GIS applications over the recent years. This paper describes different mapping technologies, database standards, and web application development standards ...

CASA Working Paper 152

CASA Working Paper 152


Visualising Space-Time Dynamics in Scaling Systems

The signature of scaling in human systems is the well-known power law whose key characteristic is that the size distributions of the elements or objects that comprise ...

CASA Working Paper 151

CASA Working Paper 151


UrbanDiary - A Tracking Project

This working paper investigates aspects of time in an urban environment, specifically the cycles and routines of everyday life in the city. As part of the UrbanDiary project (urbantick ...

CASA Working Paper 150

CASA Working Paper 150


Choice and the composition of general practice patient registers

Choice of general practice (GP) in the National Health Service (NHS), the UKs universal healthcare service, is a core element in the current trajectory ...

CASA Working Paper 149

CASA Working Paper 149


Family Names as Indicators of Britain's Changing Regional Geography

In recent years the geography of surnames has become increasingly researched in genetics, epidemiology, linguistics and geography. Surnames provide a useful data source ...

CASA Working Paper 148

CASA Working Paper 148


3D cities and numerical weather prediction models: An overview of the methods used in the LUCID project

Transferring spatial data between different types of spatial models is often a much trickier process than ...

CASA Working Paper 147

CASA Working Paper 147


Virtual Geodemographics: Repositioning Area Classification for Online and Offline Spaces

Computer mediated communication and the Internet has fundamentally changed how consumers and producers connect and interact across both real space, and has also ...

CASA Working Paper 146

CASA Working Paper 146


Random planar graphs and the London street network

In this paper we analyse the street network of London both in its primary and dual representation. To understand its properties, we consider three idealised ...

CASA Working Paper 145

CASA Working Paper 145


Social Deprivation and Digital Exclusion in England

Issues of digital exclusion are now increasingly considered alongside those of material deprivation when formulating interventions in neighbourhood renewal and other local policy interventions in health ...

CASA Working Paper 144

CASA Working Paper 144


Analyzing Urban Sprawl Patterns Through Fractal Geometry: The Case of Istanbul Metropolitan Area

Over the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in the amount of literature on the measurement of urban ...

CASA Working Paper 143

CASA Working Paper 143


Mapping for the Masses: Accessing Web 2.0 through Crowdsourcing

We first develop the network paradigm that is currently dominating the way we think about the internet and introduce varieties of social networking ...

CASA Working Paper 142

CASA Working Paper 142


The Renaissance of Geographic Information: Neogeography, Gaming and Second Life

Web 2.0, specifically The Cloud, GeoWeb and Wikitecture are revolutionising the way in which we present, share and analyse geographic data. In ...

CASA Working Paper 141

CASA Working Paper 141


Phase transitions in urban evolution

Phase transitions in statistical mechanics are compared with discrete changes in the evolution of cities and regions. It is argued that these changes do have the character of ...

CASA Working Paper 140

CASA Working Paper 140


Exploring urban retail phase transitions - 1: an analysis system

A key area in the analysis of the evolution of urban structure through  modelling is identifying phase transitions. At these critical points, the structure ...

CASA Working Paper 139

CASA Working Paper 139


Macro and Micro Dynamics of City Size Distributions: The Case of Israel

We study the distribution of sizes in the Israeli system of cities, using a rank-size representation of population distributions from 1950 ...

CASA Working Paper 138

CASA Working Paper 138


Geddes at UCL "There was something more in town planning than met the eye!"

Patrick Geddes was at UCL from 1877 to 1878 although as a student of physiology, not as the 'father ...

CASA Working Paper 137

CASA Working Paper 137


The 'thermodynamics' of the city

The methods of statistical mechanics have been successfully applied in urban modelling and there has been some attempt at the interpretation of the results in terms of 'thermodynamics ...

CASA Working Paper 136

CASA Working Paper 136


Modifying a Geodemographic Classification of the e-Society using public feedback

The e-Society geodemographic classification (Longley et al., 2008) categories neighbourhoods based on their engagement with new information communication technologies. This classification was launched ...

CASA Working Paper 135

CASA Working Paper 135


Evolution and turnover in scaling systems

Scaling has been discovered in the long tails of size distributions characterizing a variety of diverse systems, many of which evolve in terms of the size of ...

CASA Working Paper 134

CASA Working Paper 134


Creating Open Source Geodemographic Classifications for Higher Education Applications

This paper explores the use of geodemographic classifications to investigate the social, economic and spatial dimensions of participation in higher education. Education is a ...

CASA Working Paper 133

CASA Working Paper 133


Constructing and Implementing an Agent-Based Model of Residential Segregation through Vector GIS

In this paper, we present a geographically explicit agent-based model, loosely coupled with vector GIS, which explicitly captures and uses geometrical ...

CASA Working Paper 132

CASA Working Paper 132


Collaborative Mapping of London Using Google Maps: The LondonProfiler

This paper begins by reviewing the ways in which the innovation of Google Maps has transformed our ability to reference and view geographically referenced ...

CASA Working Paper 131

CASA Working Paper 131


Cities as Complex Systems: Scaling, Interactions, Networks, Dynamics and Urban Morphologies

Cities have been treated as systems for fifty year but only in the last two decades has the focus changed from aggregate ...

CASA Working Paper 130

CASA Working Paper 130


Urban and regional dynamics - 3: 'DNA' and 'genes' as a basis for constructing a typology of areas

This is the third paper in a series on urban and regional dynamics. They are intended ...

CASA Working Paper 129

CASA Working Paper 129


Urban and regional dynamics - 2: an hierarchical model of interacting regions

It is argued that there are at least four distinct levels at which it is appropriate to build urban and regional models ...

CASA Working Paper 128

CASA Working Paper 128


Urban and regional dynamics - 1: a core model

It is generally recognised that there are important interdependencies that govern the development of urban and regional systems and that these can in principle be ...

CASA Working Paper 127

CASA Working Paper 127


Comparing Classifications: Some Preliminary Speculations on an Appropriate Scale for Neighbourhood Analysis with Reference to Geodemographic Information Systems

Geodemographic classifications represent the multidimensional socio?economic characteristics of people living within defined areas. They ...

CASA Working Paper 126

CASA Working Paper 126


Scaling and Allometry in the Building Geometries of Greater London

Many aggregate distributions of urban activities such as city sizes reveal scaling but hardly any work exists on the properties of spatial distributions ...

CASA Working Paper 125

CASA Working Paper 125


Virtual Cities: Digital Mirrors into a Recursive World

Digital cities are moving well beyond their original conceptions as entities representing the way computers and communications are hard wired into the fabric of the ...

CASA Working Paper 124

CASA Working Paper 124


Digital Urban - The Visual City

Nothing in the city is experienced by itself for a city's perspicacity is the sum of its surroundings. To paraphrase Lynch (1960), at every instant, there is ...

CASA Working Paper 123

CASA Working Paper 123


The Repast Simulation/Modelling System for Geospatial Simulation

The use of simulation/modelling systems can simplify the implementation of agent-based models. Repast is one of the few simulation/modelling software systems that supports ...

CASA Working Paper 122

CASA Working Paper 122


Planning Support Systems: Progress, Predictions, and Speculations on the Shape of Things to Come

In this paper, we review the brief history of planning support systems, sketching the way both the fields of ...

CASA Working Paper 121

CASA Working Paper 121


Key Challenges in Agent-Based Modelling for Geo-Spatial Simulation

Agent-based modelling (ABM) is fast becoming the dominant paradigm in social simulation due primarily to a worldview that suggests that complex systems emerge from the ...

CASA Working Paper 120

CASA Working Paper 120


Public Domain GIS, Mapping & Imaging Using Web-based Services

In this paper, we outline a series of related applications and a web service designed to enable non-expert users to develop online visualizations which are ...

CASA Working Paper 119

CASA Working Paper 119

Socioeconomic Networks with Long-Range Interactions

In well networked communities, information is often shared informally among an individual's direct and indirect acquaintances. Here we study a modified version of a model previously proposed ...

CASA Working Paper 118

CASA Working Paper 118


Setting Children Free: Children's Independent Movement in the Local Environment

Parental concerns about children's safety and security are restricting children's independent exploration of the local environment. Children are being denied ...

CASA Working Paper 117

CASA Working Paper 117


Complexity in City Systems: Understanding, Evolution, and Design

As we learn more about the world and reflect on its meaning, an overwhelming sense of inadequacy in our ability to both understand and change ...

CASA Working Paper 116

CASA Working Paper 116


The Cultural, Ethnic and Linguistic Classification of Populations and Neighbourhoods using Personal Names

There are growing needs to understand the nature and detailed composition of ethnic groups in today's increasingly multicultural societies ...

CASA Working Paper 115

CASA Working Paper 115


Guidelines for Assessing Pedestrian Evacuation Software Applications

This paper serves to clearly identify and explain criteria to consider when evaluating the suitability of a pedestrian evacuation software application to assess the evacuation process ...

CASA Working Paper 114

CASA Working Paper 114

Psychosocial implications of blindness and low-vision

This article discusses several aspects of psychosocial adjustment to blindness and low-vision and proposes that the education of both the self and society are essential for positive ...

CASA Working Paper 113

CASA Working Paper 113


Model Cities

The term 'model' is now central to our thinking about how we understand and design cities. We suggest a variety of ways in which we use 'models', linking these ideas to ...

CASA Working Paper 112

CASA Working Paper 112

Visualizing Creative Destruction

We introduce a series of methods for visualizing the dynamics of firm size as indicative of the way the creation of new economic entities destroy the existing order in the ...

CASA Working Paper 111

CASA Working Paper 111


The UK Geography of the E-Society: A National Classification

It is simplistic to think of the impacts of new information and communication technologies (ICTs) in terms of a single, or even small number ...

CASA Working Paper 110

CASA Working Paper 110


Principles and Concepts of Agent-Based Modelling for Developing Geospatial Simulations

The aim of this paper is to outline fundamental concepts and principles of the Agent-Based Modelling (ABM) paradigm, with particular reference to the ...

CASA Working Paper 109

CASA Working Paper 109


Exploring cities using agent-based models and GIS

Cities are faced with many problems such as urban sprawl, congestion, and segregation. They are also constantly changing. Computer modelling is becoming an increasingly important tool ...

CASA Working Paper 108

CASA Working Paper 108

Developing a Prototype Agent-Based Pedestrian Evacuation Model to Explore the Evacuation of King's Cross St Pancras Underground Station

London's King's Cross St. Pancras underground station has been the unfortunate location ...

CASA Working Paper 107

CASA Working Paper 107


Beyond statistical testing: Individual differences and the content and accuracy of mental representations of space

The article uses data from two experiments on the content and accuracy of mental representations of space by ...

CASA Working Paper 106

CASA Working Paper 106


WePWEP: Web-based Participatory Wind Energy Planning [2]

This document results from an effort to compile and make available to the wider public information on wind energy developments in the County of Norfolk. It ...

CASA Working Paper 105

CASA Working Paper 105

WePWEP: Web-based Participatory Wind Energy Planning [1]

This document has been prepared in the frame of a PhD research project, which aim is to develop and test a learning-enhancing website design to involve ...

CASA Working Paper 104

CASA Working Paper 104

Assessing the geographic dimensions of London's innovation networks

A wide range of authors have highlighted the potential benefits for innovation that may arise from effective networking between organisations along and across the ...

CASA Working Paper 103

CASA Working Paper 103

Mapping European Research Networks

This paper proposes a framework for measuring the performance and mapping the geography of the European Research Area (ERA) based on the analysis of existing research and knowledge networks.

CASA Working Paper 102

CASA Working Paper 102

Policy networks: conceptual developments and their European applications

Discussions on policy networks are becoming increasingly common in the analysis of public policy. However nowhere is to be found a common understanding of what ...

CASA Working Paper 101

CASA Working Paper 101


Mapping London's innovation networks

A wide range of authors have highlighted the potential benefits for entrepreneurial companies that engage in effective networking along and across the supply-chain. As many organisations have downsized ...

CASA Working Paper 100

CASA Working Paper 100


Proceedings of the ECCS 2005 Satellite Workshop: Embracing Complexity in Design - Paris 17 November 2005

Embracing complexity in design is one of the critical issues and challenges of the 21st century. As the ...

CASA Working Paper 99

CASA Working Paper 99


Classifying pupils by where they live : how well does this predict variations in their GCSE results?

Classifying consumers according to the type of neighbourhood in which they live is now standard practice among ...

CASA Working Paper 98

CASA Working Paper 98


Imagining the Recursive City: Explorations in Urban Simulacra

Cities are microcosms of societies, worlds within worlds, which repeat themselves at different spatial scales and over different time horizons. In this essay, we argue ...

CASA Working Paper 97

CASA Working Paper 97


Enhancing urban analysis through lacunarity multiscale measurement

Urban spatial configurations in most part of the developing countries show particular urban forms associated with the more informal urban development of these areas. Latin American ...

CASA Working Paper 96

CASA Working Paper 96


Spatial variations in road collision propensities in London

Propensity to be involved in a road traffic collision in Greater London is likely to depend on many factors, including personal mobility, lifestyle, behaviour, neighbourhood ...

CASA Working Paper 95

CASA Working Paper 95


Simulating Emergent Urban Form: Desakota in China

We propose that the emergent phenomenon know as 'desakota', the rapid urbanization of densely populated rural populations in the newly developed world, particularly China, can be ...

CASA Working Paper 94

CASA Working Paper 94


Information Maps: Tools for Document Exploration

So much has already been written about everything that you can't find out anything about it. - James Thurber (1961)

CASA Working Paper 93

CASA Working Paper 93


Spatial representation and low vision: Two studies on the content, accuracy and utility of mental representations

The paper reports on two studies being conducted with students from Dorton College - Royal London Society for ...

CASA Working Paper 92

CASA Working Paper 92


The ethics of forgetting in an age of pervasive computing

In this paper, we examine the potential of pervasive computing to create widespread sousveillance, that will complement surveillance, through the development of lifelogs ...

CASA Working Paper 91

CASA Working Paper 91


Tracking retail trends in London -- Linking the 1971 Census of Distribution to ODPM's new town centre statistical series --A revised report

Retailing is highly significant to London's employment, economy, tourism and ...

CASA Working Paper 90

CASA Working Paper 90


Neighbourhood Inequalities in the Patterns of Hospital Admissions and their Application to the Targeting of Health Promotion Campaigns

For many years indicators of deprivation have played a pivotal role in the process whereby ...

CASA Working Paper 89

CASA Working Paper 89


Central Place Theory and Geodemographics - The application of Central Place rank values to Zones of Residence

This paper is one of a series of research papers which form part of an ESRC funded ...

CASA Working Paper 88

CASA Working Paper 88


Neighbourhood Segregation and Social Mobility among the descendants of Middlesbrough's 19th century Celtic Immigrants

This paper is one of a series of research papers which form part of an ESRC funded research ...

CASA Working Paper 87

CASA Working Paper 87


Assessing Texture Pattern in Slum Across Scales An Unsupervised Approach

According to the Global Report on Human Settlements (United Nations, 2003), almost 1 billion people (32% of the world's population) live in ...

CASA Working Paper 86

CASA Working Paper 86


Demographic and Deprivation Ratios: examples of their use in understanding underlying spatial patterns in social phenomena

The intention of this paper is to explore the concept of standardized demographic or deprivation Ratios - what ...

CASA Working Paper 85

CASA Working Paper 85


Hierarchy in Cities and City Systems

Hierarchy is implicit in the very term city. Cities grow from hamlets and villages into small towns and thence into larger forms such as 'metropolis', 'megalopolis' and ...

CASA Working Paper 84

CASA Working Paper 84


The relative power of geodemographics vis a vis person and household level demographic variables as discriminators of consumer behaviour

Geodemographics is a field of study which involves the classification of consumers according to ...

CASA Working Paper 83

CASA Working Paper 83


Net:Geography Fieldwork Frequently Asked Questions

Q. What is the Net:Geography FAQ about?

CASA Working Paper 82

CASA Working Paper 82


Codes of Life: Identification Codes and the Machine-Readable World

In this paper we present a detailed examine of identification codes, their embeddedness in everyday life, and how recent trends are qualitatively altering their ...

CASA Working Paper 81

CASA Working Paper 81

Code, space and everyday life

In this paper we examine the role of code (software) in the spatial formation of collective life. Taking the view that human life and coded technology are folded ...

CASA Working Paper 80

CASA Working Paper 80


Distance in Space Syntax

We explore ways of introducing Euclidean distances associated with street systems represented by axial lines into the two connectivity graphs based on points (or street junctions), and on lines ...

CASA Working Paper 79

CASA Working Paper 79


Visualization in Spatial Modeling

This paper deals with issues arising from a central theme in contemporary computer modeling - visualization. We first tie visualization to varieties of modeling along the continuum from iconic to ...

CASA Working Paper 78

CASA Working Paper 78


Determining Sustainable Development Density using the Urban Carrying Capacity Assessment System

Diverse urban problems in the capital region of Korea occur due to over-development and over-concentration which exceed the region's carrying capacity ...

CASA Working Paper 77

CASA Working Paper 77


Spatial Ability, Urban Wayfinding and Location-Based Services: a review and first results

Location-Based Services (LBS) are a new industry at the core of which are GIS and spatial databases. With increasing mobility of ...

CASA Working Paper 76

CASA Working Paper 76


Design and anticipation: towards an organisational view of design systems

Although the first attempts to establish a systematic way of studying, teaching and practicing design go back to the 1960s (Asimov 1962; Alexander ...

CASA Working Paper 75

CASA Working Paper 75


A New Theory of Space Syntax

Relations between different components of urban structure are often measured in a literal manner, along streets for example, the usual representation being routes between junctions which form ...

CASA Working Paper 74

CASA Working Paper 74

A State of the Art Review of Geodemographics and their Applicability to the Higher Education Market

Paralleling a shift from Fordist to Post Fordist methods of production, the importance of knowing who, and ...

CASA Working Paper 73

CASA Working Paper 73


Automatic Extraction of Hierarchical Urban Networks: A Microspatial Approach

We present an image processing technique for the identification of 'axial lines' from ridges in isovist fields first proposed by Rana. These ridges are ...

CASA Working Paper 72

CASA Working Paper 72


Cities: Continuity, Transformation, and Emergence

Cities can be regarded as the quintessential example of complexity. Insofar as we can define a hidden hand determining their morphology, this is based on the glue that ...

CASA Working Paper 71

CASA Working Paper 71


Representing Multifunctional Cities: Density and Diversity in Space and Time

In this paper, we define measures of urban diversity, density and segregation using new data and software systems based on GIS. These allow ...

CASA Working Paper 70

CASA Working Paper 70


Traffic, Urban Growth and Suburban Sprawl

Populations are barely reproducing themselves and migration from the countryside to the town has slowed to a trickle, the demand for more living space shows no sign ...

CASA Working Paper 69

CASA Working Paper 69

A Rigorous Definition of Axial Lines: Ridges on Isovist Fields

We suggest that 'axial lines' defined by (Hillier and Hanson, 1984) as lines of uninterrupted movement within urban streetscapes or buildings, appear as ...

CASA Working Paper 68

CASA Working Paper 68


Integrated Urban Evolutionary Modeling

Cellular automata models have proved rather popular as frameworks for simulating the physical growth of cities. Yet their brief history has been marked by a lack of application to ...

CASA Working Paper 67

CASA Working Paper 67


Review of Current Practices in Recording Road Traffic Incident Data: With Specific Reference to Spatial Analysis and Road Policing Policy

Errors within height models have, in the past, been communicated in terms of ...

CASA Working Paper 66

CASA Working Paper 66


Interpreting Interpolation:The Pattern of Interpolation Errors in Digital Surface Models Derived from Laser Scanning Data

Errors within height models have, in the past, been communicated in terms of global measures of accuracy ...

CASA Working Paper 65

CASA Working Paper 65


Agents, Cells and Cities: New Representational Models for Simulating Multi-Scale Urban Dynamics

New forms of representation at a fine spatial scale, where units of space are conceived as cells and populations as individual ...

CASA Working Paper 64

CASA Working Paper 64


The Emergence of Cities: Complexity and Urban Dynamics

This paper presents an approach to urban dynamics that generalizes the traditional rank-size model first popularized by Zipf (1949). It argues that we need to ...

CASA Working Paper 63

CASA Working Paper 63


Network Geography: Relations, Interactions, Scaling and Spatial Processes in GIS

This chapter argues that the representational basis of GIS largely avoids even the most rudimentary distortions of Euclidean space as reflected, for example ...

CASA Working Paper 62

CASA Working Paper 62


Pedestrian Demand Modelling of Large Cities: An Applied Example from London

This paper introduces a methodology for the development of city wide pedestrian demand models and shows its application to London. The approach ...

CASA Working Paper 61

CASA Working Paper 61

Agent-Based Pedestrian Modelling

When the focus of interest in geographical systems is at the very fine scale, at the level of streets and buildings for example, movement becomes central to simulations of how ...

CASA Working Paper 60

CASA Working Paper 60

Online Participation: The Woodberry Down Experiment

The internet and world wide web are generating radical changes in the way we are able to communicate. Our ability to engage communities and individuals in designing ...

CASA Working Paper 59

CASA Working Paper 59


Techniques for augmenting the visualisation of dynamic raster surfaces

Despite their aesthetic appeal and condensed nature, dynamic raster surface representations such as a temporal series of a landform and an attribute series of ...

CASA Working Paper 58

CASA Working Paper 58

Reformulating Space Syntax: The Automatic Definition and Generation of Axial Lines and Axial Maps

Space syntax is a technique for measuring the relative accessibility of different locations in a spatial system which has ...

CASA Working Paper 57

CASA Working Paper 57


Delivering light-weight online geographic information analysis using ArcIMS

As of July 9, 2002, more than 300 websites, which provide automated mapping and facilities management over the internet, are registered in the ESRI Internet ...

CASA Working Paper 56

CASA Working Paper 56


The Discrete Dynamics of Small-Scale Spatial Events: Agent-Based Models of Mobility in Carnivals and Street Parades

Small-scale spatial events are situations in which elements or objects vary in such a way that temporal ...

CASA Working Paper 55

CASA Working Paper 55


City of Slums: self-organisation across scales

The city is certainly a fine example of a complex system, where the parts can only be understood through the whole, and the whole is more than ...

CASA Working Paper 50

CASA Working Paper 50


The Impact and Penetration of Location-Based Services

The Ordnance Survey, the National Mapping Agency (NMA) for Great Britain, has recently begun to research the possible extension of its 2-dimensional geographic information into a ...

CASA Working Paper 49

CASA Working Paper 49


Multi-dimensional Modelling for the National Mapping Agency: A Discussion of Initial Ideas, Considerations, and Challenges

The Ordnance Survey, the National Mapping Agency (NMA) for Great Britain, has recently begun to research the possible ...

CASA Working Paper 48

CASA Working Paper 48


Designing plans: a control based coordination model

In this paper we discuss artificial plan designing as a research field that deals with the development and use of computational models to support the generation ...

CASA Working Paper 47

CASA Working Paper 47


Unearthing the Roots of Urban Sprawl: A Critical Analysis of Form, Function and Methodology

Urban sprawl is one of the key issues facing cities today. There is a large volume of literature on ...

CASA Working Paper 46

CASA Working Paper 46


Summary of Coral Cay Conservation's Habitat Mapping Data from Utila, Honduras

The coral reefs of Honduras are of vital national and international importance, both ecologically and economically, but are threatened because of ...

CASA Working Paper 45

CASA Working Paper 45


Usability Testing for improving interactive Geovisualization techniques

Usability describes a product's fitness for use according to a set of predefined criteria. Whatever the aim of the product, it should facilitate users' tasks ...

CASA Working Paper 44

CASA Working Paper 44


Optimising visibility analyses using topographic features on the terrain

The advantages of using the fundamental topographic features of a surface namely the peaks, pits, passes, ridges and channels as the observers (viewpoints) in ...

CASA Working Paper 43

CASA Working Paper 43


Surface Networks

The desire to understand and exploit the structure of continuous surfaces is common to researchers in a range of disciplines. Few examples of the varied surfaces forming an integral part of ...

CASA Working Paper 42

CASA Working Paper 42


Empiricism and Stochastics in Cellular Automaton Modeling of Urban Land Use Dynamics

An increasing number of models for predicting land use change in regions of rapid urbanization are being proposed and built using ...

CASA Working Paper 41

CASA Working Paper 41


Spatial Clustering Method for Geographic Data

In the process of visualizing quantitative spatial data, it is necessary to classify attribute values into some class divisions. In a previous paper, the author proposed a ...

CASA Working Paper 40

CASA Working Paper 40


Classification Methods for Spatial Data Representation

It is necessary to classify numerical values of spatial data when representing them on a map and visually understanding it. In consequence, loss of information from original ...

CASA Working Paper 39

CASA Working Paper 39


Examining Different Approaches to Mapping Internet Infrastructure

Over the last decade or so there has been a phenomenal growth in the use and diversity of information and communications technologies (ICTs), with the rise ...

CASA Working Paper 38

CASA Working Paper 38


Conceptual Models of Urban Environmental Information Systems - Toward Improved Information Provision.

Cities are the hub of European society - for over a millennium, they are the locus of social, political and economic development. As ...

CASA Working Paper 37

CASA Working Paper 37

Urban Modelling as Storytelling: Using Simulation Models as a Narrative

This article examines the distinctions between empirical and simulation models using the metaphors of argument and narrative. It argues that all argumentation is ...

CASA Working Paper 36

CASA Working Paper 36


Modeling Complexity: The Limits to Prediction

A working definition of a complex system is of an entity which is coherent in some recognizable way but whose elements, interactions, and dynamics generate structures admitting ...

CASA Working Paper 35

CASA Working Paper 35


Information Rich 3D Computer Modeling of Urban Environments

We are living in an increasingly information rich society. Geographical Information Systems now allow us to precisely tag information to specific features, objects and locations ...

CASA Working Paper 33

CASA Working Paper 33


Agents with dycotomic goals which generate a rank-size distribution

Many explanations have been proposed for the rank-size rule or power law in city size distribution based on a probabilistic process. These explanations are ...

CASA Working Paper 32

CASA Working Paper 32


Can Geocomputation Save Urban Simulation? Throw some agents into the mixture, simmer and wait ...

There are indications that the current generation of simulation models in practical, operational uses has reached the limits of ...

CASA Working Paper 31

CASA Working Paper 31

Visual and Interactive Exploration of Point Data

Point data, such as Unit Postcodes (UPC), can provide very detailed information at fine scales of resolution. For instance, socio-economic attributes are commonly assigned to UPC ...

CASA Working Paper 30

CASA Working Paper 30


The Geometry of Slums: boundaries, packing and diversity

The geometry of squatter settlements on the northeastern coast of Brazil is examined and compared to settlements in the central region of Kenya. In particular ...

CASA Working Paper 29

CASA Working Paper 29


A Virtual Exploration of the Lost Labyrinth: Developing a Reconstructive Model of Hawara Labyrinth Pyramid Complex

This paper reports on a case study that explores the possibility of reproducing a destroyed historic site ...

CASA Working Paper 28

CASA Working Paper 28


How Cellular Models of Urban Systems Work (1. Theory)

Cellular automata (CA) models have been applied to urban systems with a recent fervor and have used to explore research questions in applications from ...

CASA Working Paper 27

CASA Working Paper 27


Measuring Sprawl

Suburban sprawl is one of the most avidly followed urban issues in the United States today. However, despite the level of attention that is afforded sprawl, their remains relatively little understanding ...

CASA Working Paper 26

CASA Working Paper 26


Visualizing the City: Communicating Urban Design to Planners and Decision-Makers

There are now a wide array of new digital tools that are able to support the generic activity of planning and design. In ...

CASA Working Paper 25

CASA Working Paper 25


Weighted and metric surface networks - new insights and an interactive application for their generalisation in TCL/TK

The idea of characterising the different forms of natural topographic surfaces by a topological model based ...

CASA Working Paper 24

CASA Working Paper 24


Experiments on the generalisation and visualisation of surface networks

Parameterisation of a topographic surface into a framework of fundamental points and lines is a prominent research topic in geographic information science. Metric Surface ...

CASA Working Paper 23

CASA Working Paper 23


Angular Analysis: a method for the quantification of space

This paper presents a method for the quantification of a spatial layout for the purposes of prediction of movement through or occupancy of the ...

CASA Working Paper 22

CASA Working Paper 22


Cellular Models of Urban Systems

Cellular automaton (CA) based models are increasingly used to investigate cities and urban systems. We discuss difficulties with this representation of human systems, and suggest that many modifications ...

CASA Working Paper 21

CASA Working Paper 21


New Technologies for Urban Designers: The VENUE Project


In this report, we first outline the basic idea of VENUE. This involves developing digital tools from a foundation of geographic information systems (GIS) software ...

CASA Working Paper 20

CASA Working Paper 20


How Land-Use-Transportation Models Work

This working paper serves as an introductory reference for those studying the application of land-use-transportation models to the simulation of urban systems. The paper is by no means comprehensive ...

CASA Working Paper 19

CASA Working Paper 19


Power Law Distributions in Real and Virtual Worlds

This study compares the statistical patterns of size and connectivity of the global domains (as in '.com' and '.uk') to the geographical distribution of the ...

CASA Working Paper 18

CASA Working Paper 18


Defining and Delineating the Central Areas of Towns for Statistical Monitoring using Continuous Surface Representatives

The increasing availability of very high spatial resolution data using the unit post code as its geo-reference is ...

CASA Working Paper 17

CASA Working Paper 17


Visualization in Cyber-Geography - Reconsidering cartography's concept of visualization in current usercentric cybergeographic cosmologies.

This article discusses some epistemological problems of a semiotic and cybernetic character in two current scientific cosmologies in the ...

CASA Working Paper 16

CASA Working Paper 16


A Prototype Environmental Information System for London (London Environment Online or "LEO")

Current access to environmental information about London can be slow and tedious. This is because different organisations, (both private companies and ...

CASA Working Paper 15

CASA Working Paper 15


Dynamics of Urban Sprawl

This paper introduces a framework for understanding the dynamics of urban growth, particularly the continuing problem of urban sprawl. The models we present are based on transitions from vacant ...

CASA Working Paper 14

CASA Working Paper 14


London's Brownfield Resource Pilot Project: The Wandle Valley

Brownfields are abandoned or under-utilised areas normally within the urban core of a city. These sites are generally areas that have previously been built-on ...

CASA Working Paper 13

CASA Working Paper 13


Soft Systems Methodology Analysis for Scoping in Enivironmental Impact Statement in Israel

The current working paper will focus on Soft System Methodology (SSM) analysis of the process of issuing guidelines for Environmental Impact ...

CASA Working Paper 12

CASA Working Paper 12


Finding the Source of the Amazon.com: Examining the Hype of the "Earth's Biggest Bookstore"

Amazon.com is an archetype of the emerging e-commerce, heralded by many as a paragon of the ...

CASA Working Paper 11

CASA Working Paper 11


Mapping Cyberspace: Visualising, Analysing and Exploring Virtual Worlds

In the past years, with the development of computer networks such as the Internet and world wide web (WWW), cyberspace has been increasingly studied by ...

CASA Working Paper 10

CASA Working Paper 10


Multi-Agent Simulation: New Approaches to Exploring Space-Time Dynamics Within GIS

As part of the long term quest to develop more disaggregate, temporally dynamic models of spatial behaviour, micro-simulation has evolved to the point ...

CASA Working Paper 9

CASA Working Paper 9


STREETS: An Agent-Based Pedestrian Model

In this paper we present a two stage model for investigating pedestrian behaviour in urban centres. Pedestrian movement is influenced by both configuration and the location of attractions ...

CASA Working Paper 8

CASA Working Paper 8


The Geographies of Cyberspace

In this I paper I explore the need for a new field of geographic enquiry called cybergeography. This is the investigation of the complex and multifaceted structure, use and ...

CASA Working Paper 7

CASA Working Paper 7


From Environmental Information Systems to Environmental Informatics - Evolution and Meaning

Environmental Information and Environmental Information Systems play a major role in environmental decision making. The development of these systems is tightly connected to ...

CASA Working Paper 6

CASA Working Paper 6


Virtual Regeneration

Regenerating our increasingly polluted, worn-out urban infrastructure is becoming the singly most important challenge facing our cities.

CASA Working Paper 5

CASA Working Paper 5


The Virtual Tate

New methods for simulating the form of buildings using virtual reality (VR) have suddenly made it possible to link ways in which people use buildings to their geometric layout. VR ...

CASA Working Paper 4

CASA Working Paper 4


Local Movement: Agent-Based Models of Pedestrian Flows

Modelling movement within the built environment has hitherto been focused on rather coarse spatial scales where the emphasis has been upon simulating flows of traffic between ...

CASA Working Paper 3

CASA Working Paper 3


GIS and Urban Design

Although urban planning has used computer models and information systems since the 1950s and architectural practice has recently restructured to the use of computeraided design (CAD) and computer drafting ...

CASA Working Paper 2

CASA Working Paper 2


Visual Communication in Urban Planning & Urban Design

This report documents the current status of visual communication in urban design and planning. Visual communication is examined through discussion of standalone and network media, specifically ...

CASA Working Paper 1

CASA Working Paper 1


Modelling Virtual Urban Environments


In this paper, we explore the way in which virtual reality (VR) systems are being broadened to encompass a wide array of virtual worlds, many of which have immediate ...